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  • feedwordpress 08:01:25 on 2019/05/26 Permalink
    Tags: comparative historical linguistics, Darwin, , , James Burnett, , , Lord Monboddo, lox, , ,   

    “I like good strong words that mean something”*… 


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    Lox

     

    “One of my favorite words is lox,” says Gregory Guy, a professor of linguistics at New York University. There is hardly a more quintessential New York food than a lox bagel—a century-old popular appetizing store, Russ & Daughters, calls it “The Classic.” But Guy, who has lived in the city for the past 17 years, is passionate about lox for a different reason. “The pronunciation in the Proto-Indo-European was probably ‘lox,’ and that’s exactly how it is pronounced in modern English,” he says. “Then, it meant salmon, and now it specifically means ‘smoked salmon.’ It’s really cool that that word hasn’t changed its pronunciation at all in 8,000 years and still refers to a particular fish.”

    How scholars have traced the word’s pronunciation over thousands of years is also really cool. The story goes back to Thomas Young, also known as “The Last Person Who Knew Everything.” The 18th-century British polymath came up with the wave theory of light, first described astigmatism, and played a key role in deciphering the Rosetta Stone. Like some people before him, Young noticed eerie similarities between Indic and European languages. He went further, analyzing 400 languages spread across continents and millennia and proved that the overlap between some of them was too extensive to be an accident. A single coincidence meant nothing, but each additional one increased the chance of an underlying connection. In 1813, Young declared that all those languages belong to one family. He named it “Indo-European.”…

    Delight in the detective work recounted at “The English Word That Hasn’t Changed in Sound or Meaning in 8,000 Years.”

    * Louisa May Alcott, Little Women

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    As we celebrate continuity, we might spare a thought for James Burnett, Lord Monboddo; he died on this date in 1799.  a Scottish judge and scholar of linguistic evolution, he is best remembered a one of the founders of the modern field of comparative historical linguistics.

    Monboddo was one of a number of scholars involved at the time in development of early concepts of biological evolution. Some credit him with anticipating in principle the idea of natural selection in papers that were read by (and acknowledged in the writings of) Erasmus Darwin.  Charles Darwin read the works of his grandfather Erasmus and, of course, later developed the ideas into a scientific theory.

    Lord_Monboddo01 source

     

     
  • feedwordpress 09:01:02 on 2017/01/03 Permalink
    Tags: , carrots, Darwin, , , Lunar Society, , pottery, , Wedgwood   

    “I never worry about diets. The only carrots that interest me are the number you get in a diamond.”*… 


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    From James Vaughan, via From Deco to Atom

    * Mae West

    ###

    As we peel ’em, we might spare a thought for Josiah Wedgwood; he died on this date in 1795.  An English potter and businessman (he founded the Wedgwood company), he is credited, via his technique of “division of labor,” with the industrialization of the manufacture of pottery– and by his example, much of British manufacturing.

    Wedgwood was a member of the Lunar Society, the Royal Society, and was an ardent abolitionist.  His daughter, Susannah, was the mother of Charles Darwin.

     source

     

     
  • feedwordpress 08:01:06 on 2015/07/05 Permalink
    Tags: , Beagle, Darwin, Edgar Allan Poe, Eureka, FitzRoy, , Maori, ,   

    “The opposite of a correct statement is a false statement. But the opposite of a profound truth may well be another profound truth.”*… 


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    A diagram from Poe’s Eureka

    I design to speak of the Physical, Metaphysical and Mathematical—of the Material and Spiritual Universe:—of its Essence, its Origin, its Creation, its Present Condition and its Destiny. I shall be so rash, moreover, as to challenge the conclusions, and thus, in effect, to question the sagacity, of many of the greatest and most justly reverenced of men.” —Edgar Allan Poe, Eureka, 1848

    Eureka was the last major work Edgar Allan Poe published before his premature death in 1849.

    In Eureka, Poe claimed to have intuited, among other discoveries, that the universe is finite, that it came about by the “radiation” of atoms out from a single “primordial Particle,” that what Newton called gravity is nothing but the attraction of every atom to the other atoms with which it once shared an identity, that countervailing forces of repulsion keep matter as we know it “in that state of diffusion demanded for the fulfillment of its purposes,” and that, eventually, the universe will collapse back into its original, unitary state.

    Poe’s verdicts, as Marilynne Robinson and many others have pointed out, sometimes eerily predicted developments in twentieth-century astrophysics. For Poe, however, all the imaginings contained in Eureka—the prescient as well as the flighty or far-fetched—had the weight of indisputable truths…

    Now Poe’s prose poem is the organizing principal of a show mounted through August 28 at the pace gallery in New York.  From Alexander Calder and Edgard Varèse to Sun Ra (replete with Arkestra) and James Turrell, the group exhibition features artists “who observe and map the cosmological, metaphysical and scientific through painting, sculpture and music.”

    Read more about Poe’s Eureka in the Paris Review; visit the show at the Pace Gallery.

    * Niels Bohr

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    As we contemplate the cosmos, we might send exploratory birthday greetings to Robert FitzRoy; he was born on this date in 1805.  A scientist (hydrographer, meteorologist) and career officer in the Royal Navy who devised a storm warning system that was the prototype of the daily weather forecast, invented a barometer, and published The Weather Book (1863), he rose to the rank of Vice Admiral.

    But he is surely best remembered as the captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin’s famous voyage (FitzRoy’s second expedition to Tierra del Fuego and the Southern Cone)… though he might rightly also be remembered for his tenure as Governor of New Zealand: during which he tried to protect the Maori from illegal land sales claimed by British settlers.

     source

     

     
  • feedwordpress 08:01:00 on 2015/03/22 Permalink
    Tags: Adam Sedgwick, cave, Darwin, , , Hang Son Doong, , , ,   

    “The cave you fear to enter holds the treasure you seek”*… 


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    Photographer Ryan Deboodt and his team hiked (for days)…

    … then flew a drone even further into the belly of Vietnam’s Hang Son Doong, the world’s largest known cave.

    email readers click here for video

    See more extraordinary photos (and larger versions of those above) on Ryan’s site.

    * Joesph Campbell

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    As we go spelunking, we might send crusty birthday greetings to Adam Sedgwick; he was born on this date in 1785.  One of the founders of modern geology, he proposed both the the Devonian and the Cambrian periods of the geological timescale.  Sedgwick was a fierce critic of the theory of evolution when it appeared, calling it “”utterly false… from first to last it is a dish of rank materialism cleverly cooked and served up”; nonetheless, he and Charles Darwin (one of Sedgwick’s students at Cambridge) were friends until Sedgwick’s death in 1873.

     source

     

     
  • feedwordpress 09:01:42 on 2014/11/24 Permalink
    Tags: Darwin, Drunkenness, , , , Origin of the Species, Robert Macnish, The Anatomy of Drunkenness,   

    “Intoxicated? The word did not express it by a mile. He was oiled, boiled, fried, plastered, whiffled, sozzled, and blotto”*… 


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    The expanded fifth edition of Glaswegian surgeon Robert Macnish’s The Anatomy of Drunkenness (1834) examines inebriety from a wide range of angles.  Though alcohol is the main focus, he also explores the use of opium (popular at the time), tobacco, nitrous oxide, and of various (real or reputed) “poisons,” like hemlock, “bangue” (cannabis), foxglove, and nightshade.  Macnish’s examination includes wonderful descriptions of the different kinds of drunk according to alcohol type, methods for cutting drunkenness short, and an outlining of the seven different types of drunkard (Sanguineous, Melancholy, Surly, Phlegmatic, Nervous, Choleric and Periodical).

    The seventh chapter of the book examines the phenomenon of “spontaneous combustion” which, Macnish reports, tends to strike drunkards in particular.

    Page through at Public Domain Review.

    * P.G. Wodehouse, Meet Mr. Mulliner

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    As we ask for a club soda, we might consider just how far we have– and haven’t– come, as it was on this date in 1859 that Charles Darwin published The Origin of the Species.  Actually, on that day he published On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, or the Preservation of Favoured Races in the Struggle for Life; the title was shortened to the one we know with the sixth edition in 1872.

     Title page of the 1859 edition

     

     
  • feedwordpress 08:01:01 on 2014/05/28 Permalink
    Tags: , Darwin, dinosaurs, , , is not a dinosaur, John Lubbock, , ,   

    “Dinosaurs did not walk with humans. The evolutionary record says different. They gamboled”*… 


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    Emily Graslie, host/writer of the educational YouTube series The Brain Scoop, has branched out to manage the wonderful Tumblr “…is not a dinosaur.”

    This blog is a result of an erroneous mistake; one day I referred to Dimetrodon as a mammal-like reptile in front of a vertebrate paleomammalogist. These animals are not at all members of Reptilia; they are Synapsids – four-legged, back-boned animals that span back 315 million years on a completely different evolutionary branch on the tree of life.

    Since then, I’ve found Dimetrodon partying with members of Dinosauria across the pages of coloring books and frolicking in the aisles of toy stores, surrounded by lifeforms which evolved some 66 million years after those ancient mammalian relatives…

    And she’s shared; for example…

    aurusallos:

    isnotadinosaur:

    This is one of my favorites – I’ll reblog whomever points out all of the discrepancies in this one image. You’ll also get a puppy*
    *probably not

    Upper-left feathered thing: probably an Archaeopteryx, but they have been proven to have black feathers. Although kudos to the authors/artists for allowing feathered dinosaurs to somewhat grace the cover! (Darn publishing logos)

    Left green thing: an aetosaur, most likely. NOT DINOSAURS

    Dimetrodon: PELYCOSAUR, NOT A DINOSAUR, SYNAPSID NOT A DIAPSID, UGHHHHHHHH. DIDN’T EVEN LIVE IN THE MESOZOIC.

    Stegosaurus: head shape wrong, and dopey tail is not anatomically correct

    Blue Ornithomimus thing: FOUR TOES ON THE GROUND? I don’t think so! And pronated wrists, not to mention the lack of feathers…

    Protoceratops: legs sprawled out to the side instead of underneath, also missing the lower beak

    Velociraptor pair: NO FEATHERS, TOO BIG, BROKEN HIPS (Sauruschian hips followed a 90 degree rule, meaning the femur does not bend back more than 90 degrees), more pronated wrists, wrong skull shape, and what are toe claws

    Assumed Pteranodon: wimpy arm and shoulder musculature, missing pyncofibers, and wrong skull shape (although it might be viable, I’m scared to continue going through and trying to find pterosaur skeletals right now because of David Peters and his misleading work).

    Also, many of these creatures are geographically misplaced, so even if they weren’t all from different time periods (Permian-Cretaceous), they probably wouldn’t have interacted much.

    And, of course, the slightly off-center type of the title of the book is bugging me as a graphic design freak, but oh well.

    ETA: More about the Dimetrodon: This illustration shows it with erect legs when it actually had sprawling legs, and the skull/mouth shape is not accurate either.

    They just messed up bad with this one.

    ETA2: While I do not know that much about paleobotany, I believe that most of the plants presented are fairly accurate.

    I’m so proud I could cry.

     More disambiguation of the distant past at … is not a dinosaur.

    * Steve Martin

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    As we make Jurassic judgements, we might spare a thought for The Right Honorable John Lubbock, 1st Baron Avebury PC FRS DCL LLD; he died on this date in 1913.  A banker by trade (and family tradition), Lubbock was an avocational scientist who made significant contributions to ethnography, several branches of biology, and– as a friend and advocate of Darwin– the debate over evolution, and was a central force in establishing archaeology as a scientific discipline.

     source

     

     
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